Types of learning

Wolfgang Greller describes four categories of learning- two of which non-formal & accidental should make a good addition to any consideration of ePortfolios/PLEs.

formal learning is where the objectives (learning outcomes), the method, management, and the assessment of the learning outcomes are by and large created externally.

non-formal learning is where the learning outcomes are internally defined (by the learner), maybe also the method. The assessment can be self-assessment or external assessment.

informal learning is where no concrete learning outcomes have been defined, but intentional learning happens that is self-motivated. Informal learning requires no assessment, although self-assessment or reflection are not explicitly excluded.

heuristic or accidental learning is stumbling across knowledge that results in mental intake and thus gets added to the internal/personal knowledge base.



About thand

I'm a currently working at NSW Departrment of Education & Training, Connected Classrooms Program, Sydney.
This entry was posted in education, ePortfolio, Informal learning, knowledge, PLE. Bookmark the permalink.

2 Responses to Types of learning

  1. onemorecup says:

    I just love what you folks are doing here! It is indeed exciting and cutting edge stuff that is clearly comprehensible outside of the academic arena.

    For Messrs. Greller or Hand: Would you please, or can you please cite a source from where the notion of ‘Types’ or ‘Categories’ of learning comes from?

    Please understand that I do not disagree whatsoever; however, the phraseology is a bit different. Thanking you in advance and I remain,


    j. p. schilling, esq.
    ‘The Thinker’

  2. thand says:

    JP- OECD in 2006 set out a paper to recognise three categories of learning (formal, non-formal and informal.) The paper urges policy makers to recognise these categories and the need for instiutions to accommodate in their evaluation of student outcomes. Sorry don’t have the source, but it was May 2006.

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